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8: Understanding Civility and Cultural Competence - Mathematics


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10 Actions You Can Focus on to Influence Culture of Respect, Civility in your Workplace

Imagine a work environment where all communications and interactions were conducted in a civil and respectful manner. Co-workers and customers would be treated respectfully on a consistent basis. There would be no place for harassment, discrimination, bullying, workplace violence, unethical actions, or other disrespectful and potentially illegal behaviors.

Instead of this idealized picture, studies and polls indicate that workplaces are a reflection of society at-large and that incivility is a serious problem that is getting worse. Web sites such as www.rudebusters.com and www.bullybusters.com reflect these trends. One study on workplace research found that 80% of those polled responded that lack of respect is a serious problem and 60% believed that the problem was getting worse. The study estimated that the average Fortune 1000 executive spent 13% of his or her time mediating employee disputes. Another found that nine out of 10 Americans thought that incivility increases opportunities for violence. Findings from these and other studies further point out that disrespectful and uncivil behaviors decrease morale, drain productivity, increase turnover, and negatively impact an organization’s bottom line as well as the overall economy.

If we take a snapshot of today’s workplaces, they generally will fall somewhere in between the two extremes on a continuum ranging from disrespectful to highly respectful. This measure is not expected to be static over time. Moving an organizational culture on a continuum toward an imagined environment, as described above, will require that respect become a core value, one that is understood, articulated, internalized and acted upon by employees at all levels of the organization. In organizations that have not identified this value as part of an overall focus, individual employees can still make a difference by adopting the concept “each one influence one” and taking responsibility for acting in a manner that demonstrates self-respect and respect for others.


Health Communications

Nowhere are the divisions of race, ethnicity, and culture more sharply drawn than in the health of the people in the United States. Despite recent progress in overall national health, disparities continue in the incidence of illness and death among African Americans, Latino/Hispanic Americans, Native Americans, Asian Americans, Alaska Natives, and Pacific Islanders, as compared with the US population as a whole.

Health and human service organizations are recognizing the need to enhance services for culturally and linguistically diverse populations. Providing culturally and linguistically appropriate healthcare services requires an understanding of cultural competence.


Cultural Competency Vs. Cultural Humility

The following post is by Jason Bilbrey, our Director of Pastoral Care here at The Marin Foundation. You can read more from Jason at his blog, www.jasonbilbrey.com or follow him on Twitter at @JasonBilbrey.


You&rsquore going to say something wrong.

That&rsquos the fear I validated here on the blog last week for those just beginning to engage in this conversation surrounding sexual orientation, gender identity and faith. It&rsquos a steep learning curve, and the chance that you&rsquoll say the wrong thing at some point is very high.

The desire not to offend is good. In my experience, most people play it safe in one of two ways.

The first approach is to say nothing. It&rsquos hard to offend if you don&rsquot open your mouth. There are any number of proverbs about &ldquothe fool&rdquo defending this position. It&rsquos wise. However, it&rsquos not really sustainable in the long run. The conversation around gender and sexuality has become one of the the defining issues facing the church today. As I wrote last week, moderate voices are needed.

The second approach is to equip oneself with the right vocabulary and the right set of expectations. It&rsquos hard to offend if you don&rsquot say anything offensive. Or at least in theory. In practice, these conversations can be very difficult to navigate, as we&rsquoll see. But this approach is known as cultural competency.

There&rsquos a third approach, of course. It&rsquos cultural humility. In contrast to remaining silent or pursuing competency, humility accepts the probability of saying the wrong thing. It still plays it safe, in a way, but it promotes safety within the conversation rather than the safety of individual egos. The culturally humble person risks getting it wrong and embarrassing herself, because engaging with the other person is more important than saving face.

Here are a few more ways in which this new approach differs from the more traditional approach:

Cultural Competency says, &ldquoI&rsquom the expert.&rdquo Cultural Humility says, &ldquoYou&rsquore the expert.&rdquo The goal of competency is to equip you with the right answers, as if the culture you are experiencing is a language you have learned to interpret. The cultural humility approach, on the other hand, is meant to equip you with the right questions.

Cultural humility, then, represents a shift in focus from confidence in one&rsquos own knowledge to deference to another&rsquos knowledge.

Cultural Competency is an end product. Cultural Humility is a lifelong process. Many individuals and institutions understand competency as being a kind of certification that you earn, qualifying you to engage in an approved way. Like a license to practice conversation. There&rsquos no certification or class on humility. It&rsquos an attitude you adopt. It&rsquos a desire to learn, not a desire to be learned. It&rsquos the education, not the degree.

There are powerful social instincts we have to approach groups with a desire to become an insider. It&rsquos uncomfortable to remain an outsider, but this is where cultural humility pitches its tent, so to speak.

Cultural Competency implies an objective set of best practices. Cultural Humility implies a subjective set of best practices. I should be quick to point out that, yes, there is preferred language. This is a correct way (and an incorrect way) to conduct oneself as a straight person in a gay venue. There are, in other words, best practices. But that&rsquos not to say that there are terms and practices that are right for every person or every space.

You need to exchange the idea of a universal set of cultural experiences for an individualized set. The term &ldquoqueer,&rdquo for example, isn&rsquot preferred by everyone. But it is by some. And you won&rsquot know who until you take the time to listen. The same with &ldquogay&rdquo or &ldquosame-sex attracted&rdquo or &ldquotrans.&rdquo What is right for one person is wrong for another.

The interaction you have is not with LGBTQ culture, but with the LGBTQ individual in front of you. After all, one person, with his/her/their limited experience of being LGBTQ, cannot truly represent the entire community. And that&rsquos what cultural humility recognizes.


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8: Understanding Civility and Cultural Competence - Mathematics

There is no one definition of cultural competence. Definitions of cultural competence have evolved from diverse perspectives, interests and needs and are incorporated in state legislation, Federal statutes and programs, private sector organizations and academic settings. The seminal work of Cross et al in 1989 offered a definition of cultural competence that established a solid foundation for the field. The definition has been widely adapted and modified during the past 15 years. However, the core concepts and principles espoused in this framework remain constant as they are viewed as universally applicable across multiple systems.

A number of definitions and descriptions of cultural competence were reviewed to compile the selected list. The following definitions of are highlighted because they represent or are based on original and exemplary work and because of their potential impact to the field of health and human services.

Cross et al, 1989

Cultural competence is a set of congruent behaviors, attitudes, and policies that come together in a system, agency or among professionals and enable that system, agency or those professions to work effectively in cross-cultural situations.

The word culture is used because it implies the integrated pattern of human behavior that includes thoughts, communications, actions, customs, beliefs, values and institutions of a racial, ethnic, religious or social group. The word competence is used because it implies having the capacity to function effectively.

Five essential elements contribute to a system's institution's, or agency's ability to become more culturally competent which include:

  1. Valuing diversity
  2. H aving the capacity for cultural self-assessment
  3. B eing conscious of the dynamics inherent when cultures interact
  4. H aving institutionalized culture knowledge
  5. H aving developed adaptations to service delivery reflecting an understanding of cultural diversity

These five elements should be manifested at every level of an organization including policy making, administrative, and practice. Further these elements should be reflected in the attitudes, structures, policies and services of the organization.

National Center for Cultural Competence, 1998, modified from Cross et al

Cultural competence requires that organizations:

  • Have a defined set of values and principles, and demonstrate behaviors, attitudes, policies, and structures that enable them to work effectively cross-culturally.
  • Have the capacity to (1) value diversity, (2) conduct self-assessment, (3) manage the dynamics of difference, (4) acquire and institutionalize cultural knowledge, and (5) adapt to diversity and the cultural contexts of communities they serve.
  • Incorporate the above in all aspects of policy-making, administration, practice and service delivery, systematically involve consumers, families and communities.

Cultural competence is a developmental process that evolves over an extended period. Both individuals and organizations are at various levels of awareness, knowledge and skills along the cultural competence continuum.

Betancourt et al., 2002

Cultural competence in health care describes the ability of systems to provide care to patients with diverse values, beliefs and behaviors, including tailoring delivery to meet patients’ social, cultural, and linguistic needs.

Lavizzo-Mourey & Mackenzie, 1996

Cultural competence is the demonstrated awareness and integration of three population-specific issues: health-related beliefs and cultural values, disease incidence and prevalence, and treatment efficacy. But perhaps the most significant aspect of this concept is the inclusion and integration of the three areas that are usually considered separately when they are considered at all.

Roberts et al, 1990

Cultural competence refers to a program's ability to honor and respect those beliefs, interpersonal styles, attitudes and behaviors both of families who are clients and the multicultural staff who are providing services. In doing so, it incorporates these values at the levels of policy, administration and practice.

Denboba, MCHB, 1993

Cultural competence is defined as a set of values, behaviors, attitudes, and practices within a system, organization, program or among individuals and which enables them to work effectively cross culturally. Further, it refers to the ability to honor and respect the beliefs, language, interpersonal styles and behaviors of individuals and families receiving services, as well as staff who are providing such services. Striving to achieve cultural competence is a dynamic, ongoing, developmental process that requires a long-term commitment.

At a systems, organizational or program level, cultural competence requires a comprehensive and coordinated plan that includes interventions on levels of:

  1. policy making
  2. infra-structure building
  3. program administration and evaluation
  4. the delivery of services and enabling supports and
  5. the individual.

This often requires the re-examination of mission statements policies and procedures administrative practices staff recruitment, hiring and retention professional development and in-service training translation and interpretation processes family/professional/community partnerships health care practices and interventions including addressing racial/ethnic health disparities and access issues health education and promotion practices/materials and community and state needs assessment protocols.

At the individual level, this means an examination of one’s own attitude and values, and the acquisition of the values, knowledge, skills and attributes that will allow an individual to work appropriately in cross cultural situations.

Cultural competence mandates that organizations, programs and individuals must have the ability to:

  1. value diversity and similarities among all peoples
  2. understand and effectively respond to cultural differences
  3. engage in cultural self-assessment at the individual and organizational levels
  4. make adaptations to the delivery of services and enabling supports and
  5. institutionalize cultural knowledge.

Tervalon & Murray-Garcia, 1998

Cultural humility is best defined not by a discrete endpoint but as a commitment and active engagement in a lifelong process that individuals enter into on an ongoing basis with patients, communities, colleagues, and with themselves…a process that requires humility in how physicians bring into check the power imbalances that exist in the dynamics of physician-patient communication by using patient-focused interviewing and care.

American Association for Health Education

Cultural competence is the ability of an individual to understand and respect values, attitudes, beliefs, and mores that differ across cultures, and to consider and respond appropriately to these differences in planning, implementing, and evaluating health education and promotion programs and interventions.

National Alliance for Hispanic Health, 2001

Cultural proficiency is when providers and systems seek to do more than provide unbiased care as they value the positive role culture can play in a person’s health and well-being.

National Medical Association

Cultural Competency (Health) is the application of cultural knowledge, behaviors, and interpersonal and clinical skills that enhances a provider’s effectiveness in managing patient care.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services:

Administration on Developmental Disabilities, 2000

The term cultural competence means services, supports or other assistance that are conducted or provided in a manner that is responsive to the beliefs, interpersonal styles, attitudes, language and behaviors of individuals who are receiving services, and in a manner that has the greatest likelihood of ensuring their maximum participation in the program.

Health Resources and Services Administration, Bureau of Health Professions

Cultural competence is defined simply as the level of knowledge-based skills required to provide effective clinical care to patients from a particular ethnic or racial group.

Health Resources and Services Administration, Bureau of Primary Health Care

Cultural and linguistic competence is a set of congruent behaviors, attitudes and policies that come together in a system, agency or among professionals that enables effective work in cross-cultural situations. "Culture" refers to integrated patterns of human behavior that include the language, thoughts, communications, actions, customs, beliefs, values, and institutions of racial, ethnic, religious or social groups. "Competence" implies having the capacity to function effectively as an individual and an organization within the context of the cultural beliefs, behaviors and needs presented by consumers and their communities.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services:

Health Resources and Services Administration, Maternal and Child Health Bureau, Title V Block Grant Program Guidance, 2003

Culturally competent – the ability to provide services to clients that honor different cultural beliefs, interpersonal styles, attitudes and behaviors and the use of multi-cultural staff in the policy development, administration and provision of those services.

Office of Minority Health, National Standards for Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services in Health Care (CLAS Standards), 2001

Cultural competence - Having the capacity to function effectively as an individual and an organization within the context of the cultural beliefs, behaviors and needs presented by consumers and their communities.

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Mental Services

Cultural Competence includes: Attaining the knowledge, skills, and attitudes to enable administrators and practitioners within system of care to provide effective care for diverse populations, i.e., to work within the person’s values and reality conditions. Recovery and rehabilitation are more likely to occur where managed care systems, services, and providers have and utilize knowledge and skills that are culturally competent and compatible with the backgrounds of consumers from the four underserved/underrepresented racial/ethnic groups, their families, and communities. Cultural competence acknowledges and incorporates variance in normative acceptable behaviors, beliefs and values in determining an individual’s mental wellness/illness, and incorporating those variables into assessment and treatment.

References/Sources

American Association for Health Education, http://www.aahperd.org/aahe

Betancourt, J., Green, A. & Carrillo, E. (2002). Cultural competence in health care: Emerging frameworks and practical approaches. The Commonwealth Fund.

Cross, T., Bazron, B., Dennis, K., & Isaacs, M., (1989). Towards A Culturally Competent System of Care, Volume I. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Child Development Center, CASSP Technical Assistance Center.

Denboba, D., U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Services and Resources Administration (1993). MCHB/DSCSHCN Guidance for Competitive Applications, Maternal and Child Health Improvement Projects for Children with Special Health Care Needs.

Lavizzo-Mourey, R. & Mackenzie, E. (1996). "Cultural competence: Essential measurement of quality for managed care organizations." Annals of Internal Medicine, 124 919-926.

National Alliance for Hispanic Health (2001). A Primer for cultural proficiency: Towards quality health care services for Hispanics. Washington, D.C.

National Medical Association, National Medical Association Cultural Competence Primer, retrieved from http://www.askme3.org/PFCHC/download.asp on April 2, 2004.

Roberts, R., et al. (1990). Developing Culturally Competent Programs for Families of Children with Special Needs (monograph and workbook) Georgetown University Child Development Center.

Taylor, T., et al. (1998). Training and Technical Assistance Manual for Culturally Competent Services and Systems: Implications for Children with Special Health Care Needs. National Center for Cultural Competence, Georgetown University Child Development Center.

Tervalon, M. & Murray-Garcia, J. (1998). "Cultural humility versus cultural competence: a Critical discussion in defining physician training outcomes in multicultural education." Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 9 (2) 117-125.


Civility Statement

We the students, employees, and trustees at SJECCD are committed to a conscious demonstration of mutual respect - for people, for their roles, for their knowledge and expertise.

While no civility statement can guarantee considerate and principled conduct, the values set forth below represent institutional ideals and should serve as guide posts.

Respect, civility, integrity and honesty are not just words they are intentions that must be present in our interactions with one another.

Civility requires cooperation, tolerance, forgiveness, acceptance, inclusiveness, kindness, compassion, courtesy, perception, and patience. It is expressed not only in the words we choose, but also in our tone, demeanor, and actions.

We honor the right of expression as a hallmark of learning, and we treasure intellectual freedom, tempered with respect for the rights of others, even when individual or group points of view are controversial or out of favor with prevailing perspectives. Individuals should not feel intimidated or be subject to reprisal for voicing their concerns, or for participating in governance or policy making.

An individual’s perception of what is or is not civil conduct can be influenced by their culture and life experiences. We can all use assistance from time to time in understanding or seeing behaviors through the eyes of another person. We need to acknowledge these differences and be open to receiving feedback from someone who may perceive something we have done, without intent, as being uncivil. We also need to evaluate our own expectations of civility to ensure that we are not setting an unrealistically high bar.

In the face of incivility, silence can indicate consent we each have responsibility to speak out to counteract incivility.

Guide Posts:

  • Civility begins with me.
  • Each person is responsible for creating and maintaining a positive place to learn and to work, where everyone can flourish.
  • Take responsibility for one’s own choices. Accept your responsibility to engage courteously in all forms of communication (oral, written, and electronic).
  • Listening, not just hearing, but listening with respect, is the proper response to others.
  • Regardless of status, everyone has worth and dignity which should be valued.
  • Recognize contributions of others and value their opinions.
  • All members of the community are responsible for and expected to exemplify and promote civility, integrity, and concern for the common good.
  • Demonstrate and promote fair and just treatment practice forgiveness and compassion.

Approved by College Advisory Council on May 20, 2012. Approved by SJECCD Board of Trustees on October 8, 2013.


2018: Pre-conference Workshops

This pre-conference will provide quality improvement strategies to implement evidence into practice. The session will include curriculum and educational strategies for undergraduate and graduate programs (MSN and DNP). In addition, QI strategies for nurses in practice will include problem identification to publication including a review of the SQUIRE guidelines.

Pre-conference Workshop Option #2

(8:30-11:30 AM) Room: Great Egret

Building a Culture of Civility: A Population Health Essential for Quality and Safety

Ann M. Stalter, PhD, RN, Associate Professor, Wright State University

Janet M. Phillips, PhD, RN, ANEF, Clinical Associate Professor, Indiana University

Jeanne S. Ruggiero, PhD, RN, CNE Associate Professor, New Jersey City University

Debra L. Scardaville, PhD, RN, CPNP-PC, Professor, New Jersey City University

Karen Goldschmidt, PhD, MSN, RN,Assistant Clinical Professor, Drexel University

Mary Mckay, DNP, ARNP, CNE Associate Clinical Professor, University of Miami School of Nursing and Health Studies

Josette Brodhead, PhD, MSHS, RN, CNE, Assistant Professor of Nursing, Daemen College

Pamela L. Bonnett, DNP, RN, CNE, Professor of Instruction, The University of Akron

There is a critical need to address incivility across health systems as the result is impaired population health outcomes specifically related to quality and safety. The purpose of this interactive workshop is to provide essential skills to advance a culture of civility within healthcare systems and schools of nursing. A case study approach will be used to highlight strategies to engage teams to solve real world scenarios specific to system incivility and population health outcomes.

Pre-conference Workshop Option #3

(8:30-11:30 AM) Room: Estero A

Integrating EBP into Nursing Curricula: Making EBP Competency a Reality

Cindy Zellefrow, DNP, MSEd, RN, LSN, PHNA-BC, Director, Academic Core, The Helene Fuld Health Trust National Institute for Evidence-based Practice in Nursing and Healthcare

Evidence-based Practice is key to quality and safety, a core competency of QSEN and a vital competency for all practicing nurses today. However, research suggests that confusion remains around EBP and how to teach it. Come and learn easy strategies and tools to effectively integrate EBP into nursing curricula at all levels in this engaging, interactive pre-conference workshop!

Pre-conference Workshop Option #4

(8:30-11:30 AM) Room: Estero B

Clinical Faculty Bootcamp: Transition from Expert Bedside Nurse to Novice Clinical Nursing Faculty

Kimberly Silver Dunker, DNP, RN, Associate Professor/Faculty, RN to BS Nursing Coordinator, Worcester State University, Worcester, MA
Karen Manning, RN, MSN, CRRN, CHPN, Chair, Laboure College, Milton, MA

This conference is designed for anyone who teaches nursing students in clinical, coordinates students who go to clinical, nursing educators for the Hospital who work with students as well as preceptors. The workshop will provide the participant with many tools for clinical teaching as well as QSEN based teaching strategies to enhance the quality and safety of the clinical rotation.

Pre-conference Workshop Option #5

(8:30-11:30 AM) Room: Estero C

Title:
Mathematics Education and Nursing: Current Issues and Challenges

Speakers and credentials:

Sponsoring Agency/Organization: The Charles A. Dana Center at University of Texas at Austin and the Mathematical Association of America •

Rebecca Hartzler, MS, Manager for Advocacy and Professional Learning Higher Education, Mathematics, Charles A. Dana Center
Daniel Ozimek, M.Ed., Assistant Professor of Mathematics, Pennsylvania College of Health Sciences
Anna Wendel, MSN, CRNP, Nursing Faculty, Pennsylvania College of Health Sciences
Suzanne Doree, Professor, Mathematics Augsburg University
Doug Ensley, Deputy Executive Director Mathematical Association of America
John Clochesy, PhD, MA, RN Professor and Senior Assistant Dean PhD program and Director Faculty Mentorship Program, College of Nursing, University of Southern Florida

Description:

This pre-conference workshop will begin by providing an overview of the research regarding best practices for mathematics education of nursing students. Current research recommends an emphasis on contextualization, including both the learning and assessment environment, and teaching for conceptual understanding. Mathematical competency is essential for safe nursing practice, both in medication administration and in quality improvement. Although many programs focus on the mathematical skills needed for calculating medication dosage, it is equally crucial for nursing students to develop the ability to interpret and analyze both mathematical and statistical information encountered in the contexts of research, patient data, and healthcare administration. Attendees will participate in a facilitated discussion of current instructional and assessment practices and the challenges facing educators in implementing research-based practices in their own institutions. At the end of the workshop, attendees will have the opportunity to join a QSEN task force to promote mathematical preparation of nurses.

By the end of the session, the attendee will gain:

An understanding of specific mathematical competencies for nursing students

An awareness of gaps in current mathematics instruction

An understanding of effective assessment of mathematical competencies

New ideas regarding research-based practices for the mathematics education of nursing students

The opportunity to join the QSEN task force to promote high-quality mathematical preparation of nurses


The Roots of Civilization

by Dr. William L. Pierce

TURN ON A LOCAL television news program in just about any large city in this country, and the chances are nearly 100% that you’ll hear and see at least one Black announcer telling you what’s happening. He’ll be dressed and groomed just like the White announcers, and, in most cases, his enunciation will be so similar that you can close your eyes for a moment and almost convince yourself that you are listening to a White person.

In smoothly modulated tones the Black announcer will tell you about the intricacies of the latest financial scandal at city hall, give you a crisp rundown on upcoming cultural events, and perhaps even offer a sage comment or two on the state of public morality. Never once will he stumble over the polysyllabic words in his script or lapse into ghetto speech. At the end of the program he will engage in the customary few seconds of light banter with the other news announcers, and you can hardly help being overwhelmed by the conviction that, really, the only difference between him and his White colleagues is a matter of pigmentation.

That, of course, is exactly the conviction the directors and producers of the program intend you to be overwhelmed by. It is a conviction totally at odds with that held by most White Americans only a generation ago. Of course, the Amos’n’Andy image of Blacks hardly able to speak or tie their shoes was an overly simplistic image, but so is the one now created by today’s media managers. Blacks can be trained to read news scripts with competence, to get to work on time and sober, and to dress and talk almost exactly like the best type of Whites. But the differences between Blacks and Whites nevertheless run far more than skin deep. Those concerned with the survival of America and of Western Civilization need to understand these differences fully.

The difference which has been most widely discussed is the quantitative difference in the average Intelligence Quotient, or IQ for short, between Blacks and Whites. For many decades in this country, despite intensive efforts by educators, politicians and the testing companies themselves, Blacks have and still do consistently score 15 points lower than Whites on standardized IQ tests.

But there is also a qualitative difference in the intelligence of Blacks and Whites, and this difference is even more significant than the quantitative difference in IQs. Blacks, in other words, are not just on average slower to learn than Whites, but their mental processes differ in their essential nature from those of Whites.

At learning tasks which require only memory — for example, simple arithmetical operations and spelling — properly motivated Blacks can do nearly as well as Whites. But at tasks which require abstraction, or inference of a general rule from a series of instances — and this includes virtually all problem-solving operations — Black performance falls far below that of Whites.

This Black inability to reason inferentially and to deal with abstract concepts is reflected in the almost total absence of Blacks, despite decades of “affirmative action,” in those professions requiring abstract reasoning ability of a high order: physics and mathematics, for example. Government quotas have brought a sharp increase in the number of Blacks in American colleges and universities in recent decades, and Blacks have flooded into many professions as a result, but the sciences have remained virtually all-White. You may see Black nuclear physicists in the movies, but in real life the only Blacks you will find in physics labs are janitors and technicians — and not many have qualified as technicians.

This qualitative difference in racial intelligence is overlooked by many — and it is easy to see why this is so: most of us have a simplistic notion of human intelligence. We think of some people as being “dull” or “slow” and others as being “bright.” If a person is “dull,” he is slackjawed and unkempt, his speech is slow, and his vocabulary is limited our vision of him is modeled on that of the classic village idiot. And we think of a “bright” person as one with a quick tongue and a neat appearance.

We have been taught by TV that our former classification of Blacks as a race of village idiots was in error. So now we make the opposite error of assuming that, since many of them have a quick tongue and a neat appearance, they are approximately as “bright” as White people.

Human intelligence is many-faceted. It cannot be adequately characterized by such terms as “dullness” or “brightness.” A good memory and a facile tongue — that is, what modern educators loosely refer to as “verbal skills” — do not imply an ability to deal with abstract concepts and solve problems.

The former and the latter are separate — and independent — facets of intelligence. The former is what we more easily notice, but it is the latter on which our civilization is based. And the latter is closely linked to race.

The racial dependence of abstract reasoning ability is no secret. Anatomists have been aware for many years of the morphological differences between the brains of Blacks and Whites, and neurologists and psychologists today understand that it is in precisely those portions of the brain which in Blacks are less developed than in Whites that abstract reasoning takes place.

But because Blacks do not suffer a corresponding deficiency in their ability to develop verbal skills, we allow ourselves to assume equality where there is none, and we try to explain away troublesome facts like low IQ scores with nonsense about “cultural bias.” One only has to look at the high IQ scores of recent Asian immigrants, who suffer far more than US Blacks from cultural differences, to put the lie to that argument.

This error in assuming Black intellectual equality on the basis of the skills displayed by Black news announcers or entertainers is just one aspect of a general tendency today to confuse style for substance. Attainments of substance require exacting analysis and prudent judgment, and an understanding of underlying principles. That’s too much like work for many moderns. We have, it seems, now come to prefer style to substance. This could prove fatal to our civilization.

“Verbal skills” may have a high survival value for the individual who possesses them, but they are not civilization-building skills. A smooth line of patter may help in selling rugs or insurance the fast talker may more often land the good job or the pretty girl the person with a large vocabulary and an easy, self-confident mode of expression usually makes a good impression on others — a “bright” impression. But it is the analytical thinker, the problem-solver, who, glib or not, is the founder and sustainer of civilizations.

The clever office-seeker, the successful rug merchant, the adaptable mimic, the fluent news announcer — all have more-or-less useful roles to play in civilized life — but the very existence of that civilized life depends upon men with an altogether different set of skills. That is true of Western Civilization today, and it will also be true of the future civilization we must build if the West continues on its downward spiral.

Today Western Liberals are working very hard to help the Third World become “developed” — that is, civilized. They want to prove that the Blacks and Browns of this world have just as much capacity for civilization as Whites do. And if one visits Kenya or Nigeria, one sees what does seem like a Black civilization: Blacks driving automobiles, operating elevators, using computers and calculators and telephones, and even flying airplanes.

Top: the Parthenon. Bottom: buildings in the capital city of Haiti. Which was built in the modern age, and which by ancient tribes? Which was built by church-goers, and which by pagans? Which was built by Europeans, and which by Africans?

But it is an illusion. It is the style of civilization rather than its substance. And to the extent that even the style is maintained, there is a White minority present to keep the wheels turning. In those African countries which forced nearly all Whites to leave, civilization has ground rapidly to a halt and the jungle vines have begun taking over again.

When a diesel tractor or an electrical generator or a telephone switching system breaks down in Africa, it stays broken down until a White man fixes it — despite all the Black graduates African universities have been turning out recently. And it is not a cultural problem or an educational problem.

In this country half a century ago few farmers had ever seen a university. Many had not even been to high school. Yet, when a tractor broke down they got it running again, one way or another. They pulled it into the barn, took it apart, puzzled out the difficulty, figured a way to fix it — and then did it, often using extremely primitive facilities.

It wasn’t a matter of culture. It’s what was called “Yankee ingenuity.” It’s a racial trait.

Today civilization is more complex than it was 50 years ago. A considerably higher degree of “Yankee ingenuity” is required to keep it running. Very few of us who talk glibly about space ships and lasers and computers realize that we owe the existence of these things to an extraordinarily tiny minority of our people. The technology as well as the science involved in producing something like a pocket calculator is quite complex. A lot of people can talk about it, but very, very few are capable of actually solving the problems — or even being taught to solve the problems — involved in designing and building such a device so that it does what it is supposed to do.

Another thing that many of us do not realize is what a thin thread it is which supports civilizations in general and our present technological civilization in particular. We are holding onto this thread only by the skin of our teeth, only by exerting ourselves to the utmost of our creative abilities.

I am afraid that the average American of today would assume — if he bothered to think about it — that if the average IQ of our nation were to decline by, say, five per cent as a result of racial interbreeding or a continuation of other dysgenic practices, it would perhaps cause a corresponding decline of five per cent in the level of our civilization.

Not so! A five per cent decline in average IQ would cause our civilization to collapse. That is exactly what has happened to many other civilizations in the past, far less technologically advanced than ours. Our situation is much more precarious.

The level of civilization that a people can develop and maintain is a function of the biological quality, the racial quality, of that people — in particular, of its problem-solving ability. That is why Blacks and certain other races never developed even a rudimentary civilization and are incapable of sustaining a civilization built for them by Whites — despite the apparent “brightness” of many Blacks. And it is why the race which built Western Civilization not only must regain exclusive possession of its territories, but must also act quickly to change those policies and institutions which are causing an increasing percentage of those born to our own race to be problem-makers rather than problem-solvers.

We must do this because it is the only way our race, nation and civilization can be rescued from their decline. But our civilization is not an end in itself. The tools of a civilization, once it has reached a sufficiently high level — and we have reached that level — allow us not only to weed out the problem-makers from our midst, but to insure that we will produce even more capable problem-solvers than we have produced in the past. That, in turn, will allow the achievement and maintenance of a still-higher level of civilization — which will even further enhance our capabilities for progress in every realm.

We stand today at a threshold. If we cross it successfully, we will be on the upward path toward a world of progress, peace, prosperity, knowledge, and wisdom beyond imagining. To cross this threshold requires a clear understanding of what it is that lies at the roots of civilization it requires the ability to distinguish between style and substance and it requires that we value substance above style.

This is an abridged-for-broadcast version of an article in National Vanguard issue number 59, 1978. — Ed.


Science

Science Level Description

In Levels 7 and 8, the curriculum focus is on explaining phenomena involving science and its applications. Students explain the role of classification in ordering and organising information about living and non-living things. They classify the diversity of life on Earth into major taxonomic groups and consider how the classification of renewable and non-renewable resources depends on the timescale.

In Levels 7 and 8, the curriculum focus is on explaining phenomena involving science and its applications. Students explain the role of classification in ordering and organising information about living and non-living things. They classify the diversity of life on Earth into major taxonomic groups and consider how the classification of renewable and non-renewable resources depends on the timescale considered. Students classify different forms of energy, and describe the role of energy in causing change in systems, including the role of heat and kinetic energy in the rock cycle. They use and develop models including food chains, food webs and the water cycle to represent and analyse the flow of energy and matter through ecosystems and explore the impact of changing components within these systems. Students investigate relationships in the Earth-Sun-Moon system and use models to predict and explain astronomical phenomena. They explain changes in an object&rsquos motion by considering the interaction between multiple forces. Students link form and function at a cellular level and explore the organisation and interconnectedness of body systems. Similarly, they explore changes in matter at a particle level, and distinguish between chemical and physical change. Students make accurate measurements and control variables in experiments to analyse relationships between system components and explore and explain these relationships using appropriate representations. They make predictions and propose explanations, drawing on evidence to support their views.

Science Content Descriptions

Science Understanding

Science as a human endeavour
Biological sciences
Chemical sciences
Earth and space sciences
Physical sciences

Science Inquiry Skills

Questioning and predicting
Planning and conducting
Recording and processing
Analysing and evaluating
Communicating

Science Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 8, students explain how evidence has led to an improved understanding of a scientific idea. They discuss how science knowledge can be applied to generate solutions to contemporary problems and explain how these solutions may impact on society. They investigate different forms of energy and explain how energy transfers and transformations cause change in simple systems. They use examples to illustrate how light forms images. They use a wave model to explain the properties of sound. They use the particle model to predict, compare and explain the physical and chemical properties and behaviours of substances. They describe and apply techniques to separate pure substances from mixtures. They provide evidence for observed chemical changes in terms of colour change, heat change, gas production and precipitate formation. They analyse the relationship between structure and function at cell, organ and body system levels. They identify and classify living things. They explain how living organisms can be classified into major taxonomic groups based on observable similarities and differences. They predict the effect of environmental changes on feeding relationships between.

By the end of Level 8, students explain how evidence has led to an improved understanding of a scientific idea. They discuss how science knowledge can be applied to generate solutions to contemporary problems and explain how these solutions may impact on society. They investigate different forms of energy and explain how energy transfers and transformations cause change in simple systems. They use examples to illustrate how light forms images. They use a wave model to explain the properties of sound. They use the particle model to predict, compare and explain the physical and chemical properties and behaviours of substances. They describe and apply techniques to separate pure substances from mixtures. They provide evidence for observed chemical changes in terms of colour change, heat change, gas production and precipitate formation. They analyse the relationship between structure and function at cell, organ and body system levels. They identify and classify living things. They explain how living organisms can be classified into major taxonomic groups based on observable similarities and differences. They predict the effect of environmental changes on feeding relationships between organisms in a food web. They distinguish between different types of simple machines and predict, represent and analyse the effects of unbalanced forces, including Earth’s gravity, on motion. They compare processes of rock formation, including the time scales involved, and analyse how the sustainable use of resources depends on the way they are formed and cycle through Earth systems. They model how the relative positions of Earth, the Sun and the Moon affect phenomena on Earth.

Students identify and construct questions and problems that they can investigate scientifically and make predictions based on scientific knowledge. They plan experiments, identifying variables to be changed, measured and controlled. They consider accuracy and ethics when planning investigations, including designing field or experimental methods. Students summarise data from different sources and construct representations of their data to reveal and analyse patterns and relationships, and use these when justifying their conclusions. They explain how modifications to methods could improve the quality of their data and apply their scientific knowledge and investigation findings to evaluate claims made by others. They use appropriate scientific language, representations and simple word equations to communicate science ideas, methods and findings.


Watch the video: #8 - Interkulturelle Kompetenz (December 2021).